Physical Conditions in Canada
There are two other sources of air which affect precipitation in the rest of the country. Air coming from the arctic is cold and dry, while air coming from the Tropical Stream and the Gulf of Mexico is warmer and moist. These three air systems cover different parts of the country during the year, but each affects the precipitation.
The dry arctic air makes the north and central regions of the country dry, while most of the moisture in southeastern Canada is from the tropical air stream in the Atlantic, which enters the country from the south.
The east coast gets more precipitation not so much because of the Atlantic Ocean, as the winds are still blowing to the east, but because the Arctic and Tropical Streams meet in the area, causing much precipitation.
Three major mountain ranges are found in Canada. Two of them, the Rocky Mountains and Coastal Mountains, are both found in the west, while the arctic cordillera runs along the northeastern edge of the country. Older eroded mountains can be found in Quebec, but these are nowhere near as tall as the newer ranges mentioned. Most of the rest of the country has flat or rolling terrain.
The igneous granite of the Canadian Shield is often exposed to the north, but is less so to the south. Sedimentary rock makes up the bedrock of the Rocky mountains and the plains to the east of them, while the Coast Mountains are igneous and metamorphic in origin. The Atlantic provinces contain both igneous and sedimentary rock.
Southern Ontario and Quebec, the Prairies, and the valleys of the Atlantic Provinces have the most productive soil in the country. In the north soil takes the form of permafrost, where the water in the ground is permanently frozen. Permafrost blocks the flow of water and causes bogs.
More details can be found in the descriptions of each ecozone.