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Abe, T, SA Levin, and M Higashi, editors. 1997. Biodiversity: an ecological perspective. Springer, New York. Specialist
Balmford, A, KJ Gaston. 1999. Why biodiversity surveys are a good idea. Nature 398:204-205. General
Banfield, AWF. 1974. The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. General
Baydack, RK. 2000. Science and biodiversity. in: Biodiversity in Canada: ecology, ideas and action, edited by S Bocking. Broadview Press, Peterborough, Ontario. Intermediate
Biehl, J, editor. 1999. The Murray Bookchin reader. Black Rose Books, Montreal. Intermediate
Biodiversity Science Assessment Team. 1994. Biodiversity in Canada: a science assessment for Environment Canada. Environment Canada, Ottawa. Specialist
Brocking, S, editor. 2000. Biodiversity in Canada: ecology, ideas and action. Broadview Press, Peterborough, Ontario. Intermediate
Brown, JH and MV Lomolino. 1998. Biogeography, second edition. Sinauer Associates, Incorporated, Sunderland, Massachusetts. Intermediate
Carson, R. 1962. Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. General
Chapin, FS III, ES Zavaleta, VT Eviner, RL Naylor, PM Vitousek, HL Reynolds, DU Hooper, S Lavorel, OE Sala, SE Hobbie, MC Mack, and S Diaz. 2000. Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 405:234-242. Specialist
Clark, AH. 1981. The freshwater molluscs of Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. Specialist
Cook, FR. 1984. Introduction to Canadian amphibians and reptiles. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. General
Costanza, R, R D'arge, R De Groot, S Farber, M Grasso, B Hannon, K Limburg, S Naeem, R V O'neill, J Paruelo, Rg Raskin, P Sutton, and M Van Den Belt. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital .Nature 387: 253-260. Intermediate
Cracraft, J. 1983. Species concepts and speciation analysis. Current Ornithology 1:159-187. Specialist
Cronon, W, ed. 1995. Uncommon Ground. W.W. Norton and Company, New York, NY. Intermediate
Crooks, KR and ME Soulé. 1999. Mesopredator release and avifaunal extenctions in a fragmented sysem. Nature 400: 563-566. Specialist
Currie, DJ. 1991. Energy and large-scale patterns of animal- and plant-species richness. American Naturalist 137: 27-49. Specialist
Daily, GC, editor. 1997. Nature’s services: societal dependence on natural systems. Island Press, Washington DC. Intermediate
Diamond, I and GF Orenstein, editors. 1990. Reweaving the world: the emergence of ecofeminism. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. Intermediate
Diamond, JM. 1975. Assembly of species communities. in: Ecology and evolution of communities, ML Cody and JM Diamond, editors. Belknap Press, Cambridge. Specialist
Doak, DF, D Bigger, and EK Harding. 1998. The statistical inevitability of stability-diversity relationships in community ecology. American Naturalist 151: 264-276. Specialist
Dobson, AP. 1996. Conservation and Biodiversity. Scientific American Library, New York, NY. General
Ecological Stratification Working Group. 1996. A national ecological framework for Canada. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Minister of Supply and Services Canada, Ottawa. Specialist
Ecoregions Working Group, Canada Committee on Ecological Land Classification. 1989. Ecoclimatic regions of Canada: first approximation. Minister of Supply and Services Canada, Ottawa. Specialist
Ehrenfeld, D. 1972. Conserving Life on Earth. Oxford University Press, New York. Intermediate
Ehrenfeld, PW. 1978. The arrogance of humanism. Oxford University Press, New York. General
Ehrlich, PR and AH Ehrlich. 1981. Extinction: the causes and consequences of the disappearance of species. Random House, New York. Specialist
Erlich, PR & Erlich, AH. 1981. Extinction: the causes and the consequences of the disappearance of species. Ballantyne Books, New York. Specialist
Erlich, PR and AH Erlich. 1981. Extinction: the causes and consequences of the disappearance of species. Random House, New York. Intermediate
Estes, JA and JF Palmisano. 1974. Sea otters: their role in structuring nearshore communities. Science 185: 1058-1060. Specialist
Fox, BJ and GLJ Kirkland. 1992. An assembly rule for functional groups applied to North American soricid communities. Journal of Mammology 73: 491-503. Specialist
Gaston, KJ, editor. 1996. Biodiversity: a biology of numbers and difference. Blackwell Science, Oxford. Specialist
Gaston, KJ. 2000. Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405:220-227. Specialist
Gophen, M, PBO Ochumba and LS Kaufman. 1995. Some aspects of perturbation in the structure and biodiversity of the ecosystem of Lake Victoria (East Africa). Aquatic Living Resources, 8:27-41. Specialist
Green, DM, ed. 1997. Amphibians in decline: Canadian studies of a global problem. Specialist
Grubb, PJ. 1987. Global trends in species-richness in terrestrial vegetation: a view from the northern hemisphere. in: The organization of communities, past and present, edited by JHR Gee and PS Giller. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. Specialist
Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162:1243-1248. Intermediate
Hummel, M, ed. Protecting Canada's endangered spaces. Key Porter Books, Toronto. Intermediate
Huston, MA. 1994. Biological diversity: the coexistance of species on changing landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Specialist
Jablonski, D. 1986. Background and mass extinctions: the alternation of macroevolutionary regimes. Science 231: 129-133. Specialist
James, AN, KJ Gaston and A Balmford. 1999. Balancing the Earth's accounts. Nature 401: 323-324. General
Jones, CG, JH Lawton, and M Shachak. 1994. Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos 69: 373-386. Specialist
Kerr, JT and DJ Currie. 1999. The relative importance of evolutionary and environmental controls on broad-scale patterns of species richness in North America. EcoScience 6: 329-337. Specialist
Kerr, JT and L Packer. 1999. Epicauta species richness patterns in North America: the importance of energy. Biodiversity & Conservation. 8: 17-628. Specialist
Kohyama, T. 1997. The role of architecture in enhancing plant species diversity. in: Biodiversity: an ecological perspective, edited by T. Abe, S. A. Levin, and M. Higashi. Springer, New York. Specialist
Lawton, JH. 1997. The roles of species in ecosystems: aspects of ecological complexity and biological diversity. in: Biodiversity: an ecological perspective, edited by T. Abe, S. A. Levin, and M. Higashi. Springer, New York. Specialist
MacArthur, RH, and EO Wilson. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton. Specialist
Magurran, AE. 1988. Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton. Specialist
Mann, CC and ML Plummer. 1992. The butterfly problem. Atlantic Monthly (January):40-47. General
Margules, CR and RL Pressey. 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405:243-253. Specialist
McCann, KS. 2000. The diversity-stability debate. Nature 405:228-233. Specialist
Mills, LSM, ME Soulé, and DF Doak. 1993. The keystone-species concept in ecology and conservation. Bioscience 43: 219-224. Specialist
Mooney, HA, JH Cushman, E Medina, OE Sala and E-D Schulze, editors. 1996. Functional roles of biodiversity: a global perspective. Wiley, Chinchester. Specialist
Mosquin, T, PG Whiting, and DE McAllister. 1995. Canada’s biodiversity: the variety of life, its status, economic benefits, conservation costs and unmet needs. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa. Intermediate
Mulrennan, ME. 1998. A casebook of environmental issues in Canada.John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Toronto. Intermediate
Myers, N, RA Mittermeier, CG Mittermeier, GAB da Fonesca and J Kent. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858. Intermediate
Naeem, S and S Li. 1997. Biodiversity enhances ecosystem reliability. Nature 390: 507-509. Specialist
Naeem, S, LJ Thompson, SP Lawler, JH Lawton, and RM Woodfin. 1995. Empirical evidence that declining biodiversity may alter the performance of terrestrial ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 347: 249-262. Specialist
Naess, A. 1973. The shallow and the deep, long-range ecology movements: a summary. Inquiry 16:95-100. Intermediate
National Geographic Society. Field guide to the birds of North America, second edition. National Geographic Society, Washington DC. General
Nature. 1998. Audacious bid to value the planet whips up a storm.Nature 395: 430. General
New Scientist. 1992. Fishy business. New Scientist 134(1816):3. General
Noss, RF. 1990. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology 4:355-364. Specialist
Nowak, RM. 1999. Walker's mammals of the world, sixth edition, volumes 1 and 2. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. General
Paine, RT. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100: 65-75. Specialist
Paine, RT. 1980. Food webs: linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure. Journal of Animal Ecology 49: 667-685. Specialist
Power, ME and LS Mills. 1995. The Keystone cops meet in Hilo. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10: 182-184. Specialist
Purvis, A and A Hector. 2000. Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature 405:212-219. Specialist
Redhead, SA. 1989. A biogeographical overview of the Canadian mushroom flora. Canadian Journal of Botany 67:3003-3062. Specialist
Rosenzweig, ML. 1995. Species diversity in space and time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Specialist
Schultze, E-D and HA Mooney, editors. 1993. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Specialist
Scott, WB and EJ Crossman. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184: Ottawa. Specialist
Scudder, GGE. 1999.Endangered Species Protection in Canada. Conservation Biology 13:963-965. General
Skiba, G. 1994. Are definitions really important? Biological Diversity Working Group Newsletter, May. Intermediate
Smith, B and JB Wilson.1996. A consumer's guide to evenness indices. Oikos 76: 70-82. Specialist
Soulé, ME, ed. Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland. Intermediate
Steele, JH. 1991. Marine functional diversity: ocean and land ecosystems may have diffrent time scales for their responses to change. BioScience 41: 470-474. Specialist
Tansley, AG. 1935. The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16: 284-307. Specialist
Thoreau, HD. 1999. Walden. Oxford University Press, Oxford. General
Tilman, D, CL Lehman, and CE Bristow. 1998. Diversity-stability relationships: statistical inevitability or ecological consequence? American Naturalist 151: 277-282. Specialist
Tilman, D. 1996. Biodiversity: population vs. ecosystem stability. Ecology 77: 350-365. Specialist
Tilman, D. 2000. Causes, consequences and ethics of biodiversity. Nature 405:208-211. Specialist
Tokeshi, M. 1997. Species coexistance and abundance: patterns and processes. in: Biodiversity: an ecological perspective, edited by T. Abe, S. A. Levin, and M. Higashi. Springer, New York. Specialist
Various authors. Peterson field guides. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. General
Walker, BH. 1992. Biodiversity and ecological redundancy. Biological Conservation 6: 18-23. Specialist
Williamson, M and A Fitter. 1996. The varying success of invaders. Ecology 77:1661-1666. Specialist
Web Sites  
Site Difficulty
Agarics, Boletes and Chanterelles Specialist
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada General
Assessment of species diversity in the Montane Cordillera Ecozone Specialist
Biodiversity and Conservation online book General
Biodiversity and Worldmap Specialist
Biodiversity Conservation Network General
Biodiversity Portrait of the St. Lawrence General
Biodiversity Web General
Biodiversity WWW Sites General
Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods) General
Canada/MAB Program Intermediate
Canada's Biodiversity Convention Office Intermediate
Canadian Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Network General
Canadian Biodiversity Information Network General
Canadian Botanical Conservation Network General
Canadian Ecozones General
Canadian Forest Service Intermediate
Canadian Museum of Nature General
Canadian Wildlife Federation General
CEPA (Canadian Environmental Protection Act) Environmental Registry Intermediate
Commission of Environmental Cooperation Intermediate
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada Intermediate
Conservation International Foundation General
Convention on Biological Diversity Intermediate
Defenders of Wildlife General
Ecological Monitoring and Assesment Network Intermediate
Eco-vignettes General
EMAN ecozone click map General
Endangered Species in Endangered Spaces General
Endangered species legislation in Canada Specialist
Environment Canada General
Environmental Defense General
Environmental Organization Web Directory General
Fisheries and Oceans Canada Intermediate
Flora of North America Specialist
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Intermediate
Geogratis: Intermediate
Global Warming and Terrestrial Biodiversity Decline Intermediate
Greenpeace General
Importance of Nature to Canadians Survey General General
Man and Biosphere Intermediate
Narrative Descriptions of Terrestrial Ecozones and Ecoregions of Canada Intermediate
Natural Regions of Canada General
Negative Population Growth, Inc. General
Oceans Conservation General
Parks Canada General
Quebec Biodiversity Site General
Sierra Club of Canada General
Silver Plains General
Species at Risk in Canada General
Statistics Canada General
The Institute for Deep Ecology Intermediate
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Intermediate
Virtual Exhibit on Canada's Biodiversity: Focus on Amphibians General
Virtual Exhibit on Canada's Biodiversity: Focus on Insects General
Virtual Exhibit on Canada's Insect Diversity General
Virtual Library of Ecology and Biodiversity General
World Conservation Monitoring Centre General
World Wildlife Fund Canada General
Zero Population Growth General
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