| Climate | Geography | Flora
and fauna | Humans
This ecozone begins in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and continues north
along the Labrador coast to the southeastern end of Baffin Island, where
it moves offshore, extending almost to Ellesmere Island.
This ecozone extends from the Gulf of St. Lawrence along the northern
coast of Quebec and the eastern coast of Baffin Island almost to Greenland
and Ellesmere Island. Cold waters from the Labrador Current meet warmer
waters from the Gulf Stream and the St. Lawrence river, which also adds
fresh water to the salty ocean currents. Winter brings ice to much of
the ecozone; the St. Lawrence river usually freezes over and icebergs
are plentiful in the northern regions. Tides in the north may be up
to 12 metres high, the tides in Ungava Bay rivaling those of the famous
Bay of Fundy.
Fjords, cliffs, and bald rock are found along the shores here, the result
of grinding glaciers during the last Ice Age 10 000 years ago. The continental
shelf means that the maximum depth never much exceeds 300 metres.
To the north, only algae grow, but further south conditions allow for
kelp, phytoplankton, and seaweeds.
Aquatic mammals found here include humpback
right whale, bowhead
seal, and harp
thick-billed murre, black
fulmar, and common
ringed plover are just a few of the bird species to be found here.
The atlantic tomcod is one of the predators here, preying on such species
as rainbow smelt and mummichog. Some of the species that live in the
ocean but enter freshwater to spawn are sea lamprey, atlantic sturgeon,
alewife, atlantic salmon, arctic char, and American eel.
Some of the crustaceans found in these waters include stone
pink shrimp, and Lebbeus
In the northern section of this ecozone, human activity is largely subsistence
activities and commercial fishing. The southern section is the Gulf
of St Lawrence, and must deal with the pollution of that river, including
agricultural runoff, municipal sewage and industrial pollution.